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martyrs to racism
before 2010
after 2010
from 2015


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          Although secret or unconscious racists will deny the facts, racism is not only present in the United States, racism is quite prevelant here in modern America. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s caused laws to be passed. Those laws changed conditions for the oppressed, but only on the surface. Schools and businesses and towns were integrated, but white residents who could afford it fled to the suburbs; whites who could not afford moving away hunkered down and resented being treated like minorities. Education has gone from bad to worse, urban minorities suffer 40 percent unemployment, with 50 percent and higher unemployment on Native American reservations. No education, no jobs, no more Middle Class, no more American Dream.
          Nevada tax-dodger Cliven Bundy thought that he would be praised for referring to Negroes as slaves, but instead the media reviled him and half of those that were camping out to support his stand packed up and went home. The proof of the premise here is that half of Bundy's supporters chose to stay.
          And the college fraternity in Kansas that videotaped themselves singing the N-word also thought that they would receive praise for their 'bold' actions; in fact, when the college president ordered them shut down in just a couple days, they and many others were surprised.

          Killings of Afro-American youths and adults by on-duty police have recently escalated. The cops are very afraid, as they are quite outnumbered in many jurisdictions. That fear further escalates the situation. Then the cops lie to protect themselves and their fellow officers, not yet clear that cell phone cameras are ubiquitous. (None of the recently-released audio or video of these killings has exonerated any of the cops involved, and usually provides evidence of perjury, although indictments do not usually follow.)

          What can I do? What can you do? Well, I live in a rural area with a large percentage of the population of Hispanic heritage going back 300 years; racial prejudice here in New Mexico is more personal than it is systemic. The Native Americans here pretty much take care of themselves, although poverty remains a large factor in reservation economics.
          Local merchants here have posted racist - especially anti-Obama - signs on their buildings, which allows me to boycott their establishments; but other locals are either oblivious to the racism or in agreement.
          So yes, I boycott the racist lumberyard. But since I'm not actively in business, there is not much other means for protest. Being active every day on the internet, I can do some little posting of anti-racist rants, but that has little effect on Ferguson or the rest of racist Missouri, or racist Florida, or racist Maryland and racist Virginia. Quite frustrating!

          So in order to be in action in some fashion, this page is being built for others to find, with the non-subtle title 'Racism in America'. This page will feature those victims - whether obviously innocent or 'allegedly' criminal - who were martyred. Nobody deserves to die for sassing a cop, or for running away from a confrontation with uniformed thugs, or for refusing to get out of a vehicle, or for having dark-colored skin or an obese body or some mental illness.

          The list below consists of American citizens whose civil rights were violated per values enshrined in the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. Constitution. (The Constitution's force is extremely weak these days, but that is another topic.) The American citizens listed below did not receive 'due process under the law', and in many cases the summary punishment was sudden and permanent death by uniformed lynch mob.

U.S. Senator Barack Obama delivered a historic speech on racism in America entitled "A More Perfect Union"
at the Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 18 March 2008.

color logo for the N.A.A.C.P. (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) est. 1909
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [est. 1909]
a civil rights organization formed by W.E.B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington, and Moorfield Storey to advance justice for African Americans

The Crisis is the official magazine of the N.A.A.C.P. [est. 1910, today is online only]
distributed for many years as brochures at Y.W.C.A. reading libraries
"The Crisis Today" radio show hosted by Judge Laura Blackburne - twice weekly on W.T.H.E. 1520-AM on Long Island in New York

NAACP 100 Years in Pictures book compiled by NAACP and The Crisis Publishing Co.  "N.A.A.C.P.: Celebrating A Century - 100 Years In Pictures" [2009]
Compiled by NAACP and The Crisis Publishing Co.

Kindle Edition from Gibbs Smith [2/2009] for $19.99
Gibbs Smith 8x9¼ hardcover [2/2009] out of print/used
Protest and Propaganda book edited by Amy Helene Kirschke & Phillip Luke Sinitiere  "Protest and Propaganda: W.E.B. Du Bois, The CRISIS, and American History" [2014]
Edited by Amy Helene Kirschke & Phillip Luke Sinitiere

Univ Missouri Press pb [2/2018] for $34.95  2/2018
Univ Missouri Press 9¼x6 hardcover [3/2014] for $21.98

Martyrs to Racism in America

'Killed By Police' [est. 5/2013] Facebook page
'Killed By Police' datasite [est. 5/2013]

listings on Wikipedia of killings by police in the U.S.

for 2011 {173 listed}    •    for 2012 {609 listed}    •    for 2013 {344 listed}    •    for 2014 {632 listed}    •    for 2015 {845 listed}    •

for 2016 {185 listed}    •    for 2017 {100 listed}    •    for 2018 {12 so far}


December 1890: Native American massacre at Wounded Knee, SD
There is a graphic circulating on the internet that claims that Sandy Hook (December 2012) was not the worst school shooting in American History: this is false.
A band of about 350 Lakota Sioux survivors sought protection at the Pine Ridge Reservation; the U.S. Army moved them to Wounded Knee Creek and next morning demanded surrender of their weapons. A single shot rang out and the soldiers then slaughtered the Indians; 200 women and children were killed, and about 90 men, many of them elderly. Thirty-three soldiers died (mostly from friendly fire) and the surviving soldiers were issued 20 Medals of Honor. No school of any sort was involved in the incident.

1912: racial cleansing in Forsyth County, Georgia
White mobs called 'Night Riders' set fire to black churches and black-owned businesses in Forsyth County, Georgia and drove away the entire black population - as many as 1,100 residents. In surrounding counties, whites forced an estimated 50% and more of blacks from their homes; most never returned: as recently as the 1980s, no Afro-Americans lived in Forsyth County.

Racial Cleansing In America book by Patrick Phillips  "Blood At The Root: A Racial Cleansing In America" [2016] by Patrick Phillips
winner of dozens of Best Book or Top Ten Books of The Year awards
Kindle Edition from W.W. Norton & Co. [9/2016] for $9.04
W.W. Norton & Co. 8¼x5½ pb [9/2017] for $12.82
W.W. Norton & Co. 9½x6½ hardcover [9/2016] for $17.54

May 1916: lynching in Waco, Texas
1916 May 15: A mob of up to 15,000 whites in Waco, Texas attended the lynching of teenage black farmhand Jesse Washington, who was dragged out of the courtroom after
conviction for murdering the wife of his employer; he was mutilated, roasted over a fire, and his body burned as townspeople and schoolkids watched and celebrated.

May 1917: lynching in Memphis, Tennessee
1917 May 22: 50-year-old black woodcutter Ell Persons, accused of murdering a 16-year-old white schoolgirl with an axe, was captured in transit in Memphis, Tennessee
and lynched at the hands of over 5,000 vengeance-seeking whites; he was set on fire, then decapitated and dismembered.

July 1917: riots in East St. Louis, Illinois
1917 July 2: Rioting erupted in East St. Louis, Illinois; white mobs attacked Afro-American residents, riled up by unionists to combat strike breakers;
the estimated death toll was 50 people, mostly blacks.

July 1917: Silent Protest Parade in New York City
1917 July 28: The Negro Silent Protest Parade along Fifth Avenue in New York City, organized to protest violence against Afro-Americans such as the recent riots
in East St. Louis; 10,000 people marched carrying signs, with the only sound a steady and quiet drumbeat; the women wore all white, the men wore all black.

August 1917: Houston, Texas Mutiny and Riot
On 27 July 1917, the U.S. Army ordered the Third Battalion of the 24th Infantry Regiment from Columbus, New Mexico to Houston, Texas to guard construction of Camp Logan; the Afro-American infantrymen were accompanied by seven commissioned officers. Houston was at the time severely segregationist, with strict Jim Crow policies and a racist police force. Around noon on August 23, two white cops broke up a sidewalk craps game in the San Felipe ghetto, firing two warning shots; civilians were arrested, soldiers tried to intervene, the situation escalated with several more arrests. That evening, about 150 heavily-armed soldiers marched the 2½ miles to the San Felipe district, firing at random. Confrontations with small police groups led to a shooting that killed a National Guard captain; realizing the gravity of the situation, leaders ordered the men back to camp. The death tally was five policemen, 11 white civilians, and four soldiers. Next morning, Houston was placed under martial law, and the Third Battalion (minus the many prisoners) was sent by rail back to New Mexico.

A total of 118 enlisted black soldiers were indicted, The first of the three courts-martial tried 63 black soldiers represented by one lawyer, and was the largest court martial in U.S. history; it was known as the 'Nesbit case', and took place in San Antonio. Thirteen soldiers were hanged (with no chance for appeal) just before sunrise on December 11 and buried in a mass grave; the gallows was torn down and all trace of the event obscured.

The second court-martial, the 'Washington case', began December 17; fifteen soldiers were tried and five sentenced to be hanged (new rules delayed the executions for a while). The third court-martial of 40 more soldiers, the 'Tillman case', ended in March 1918, with 23 soldiers found guilty and 11 sentenced to death by hanging; the remaining twelve received life in prison. In August 1918, President Wilson granted clemency to ten soldiers by commuting their death sentences to life in prison. Five black soldiers were hanged together at daybreak in September 1918, and the last of nineteen a week later. In total, 110 men out of 118 were found guilty, nineteen were executed by hanging, and fifty-three received life sentences.
{Sorry, but these numbers do not cross-foot.}

article " Little-Known Mass Hanging of Black Soldiers Still Haunts Us" from The Progressive Magazine in December 2017

The Red Summer of 1919
The summer and early autumn of 1919 was marked by race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities across the United States and one rural county. The highest number of fatalities occurred around Elaine, Arkansas where five whites and an estimated 100-240 black people were killed; Chicago had 38 deaths, and Washington, DC had 15 deaths, with many more injured, along with extensive property damage.
entry at Wikipedia
"Race Riot: Chicago In The Red Summer of 1919" [Univ Illinois Press, 1970] by William M. Tuttle, Jr.
"Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and The Awakening of Black America" [Henry Holt, 2011] by Cameron McWhirter

Tulsa Race Riot of 1921
The riot began over a Memorial Day weekend after a young black man was accused of raping a young white female elevator operator at a commercial building; rumors raced through the black community of Greenwood that he was at risk of being lynched. A confrontation developed outside the police station between armed blacks and an armed white mob; shots were fired, and several whites and blacks were killed. A large white mob formed and started attacking Afro-American residents and businesses, destroying more than 35 blocks of the Greenwood district, at the time the wealthiest black community in the nation. More than 800 people were admitted to hospitals and over 6,000 black residents were arrested and detained, many for several days.

The Oklahoma Bureau of Vital Statistics officially recorded 39 dead, but the American Red Cross estimated 300, a number supported by historians since then. About 10,000 black people were left homeless, and property damage was more than $1.5M in real estate and $750,000 in personal property ($30M in 2017). Some black people claimed that policemen had joined the mob; others said that National Guardsmen fired a machine gun into the black community and a plane dropped sticks of dynamite. In an eyewitness account discovered in 2015, Greenwood attorney Buck Colbert Franklin described watching a dozen or more planes, which had been dispatched by the city police force, drop burning balls of turpentine on Greenwood's rooftops.
entry at Wikipedia
"Events of The Tulsa Disaster" [1922]
"The Tulsa Lynching of 1921: A Hidden Story" documentary [2000] directed by Michael Wilkerson, first released on Cinemax
"Fire In Beulah" [Penguin Books, 2001] novel by Rilla Askew, set during the riot
"Before They Die" documentary [2008] by Reggie Turner & The Tulsa Project,
chronicles the last survivors of the Tulsa Race Riot and their quest for justice from the city and state
"Hate Crimes In The Heartland" documentary [2014] by Rachel Lyon and Bavand Karim
"Dreamland Burning" [Little, Brown 2017] novel by Jennifer Latham about events in Tulsa in 1921 interwoven with modern consequences

August 1930: lynching in Marion, Indiana
The song "Strange Fruit" was written in 1937 by poet, teacher, and activist Abel Meeropol (under his pseudonym, Lewis Allan) and was a protest against lynchings in general and specifically against the 1930 lynching of Abram Smith & Thomas Shipp in Marion, Indiana. "Strange Fruit" was recorded by Billie Holiday in 1939 and became one of her signature songs; it was also recorded or sampled by many other well-known singers, including Nina Simone, Diana Ross, Tori Amos, Cassandra Wilson, and Kanye West.
watch performance by Billie Holiday & piano [b&w upload 11/2006; 2:33] online at YouTube
listen to Billie Holiday & horn & piano [upload 12/2011; 3:02] online at YouTube

June 1944: execution of 14-year-old George Stinney, Jr.
14-year-old Afro-American George Stinney, Jr. was put on trial in South Carolina for the murder of two white preteen girls. The whole affair was a travesty: his appointed lawyer specialized in tax law, the trial lasted just two hours (only one person testified), there were no appeals, and the farcical execution (George stood 5'1" and weighed just over 90 pounds) took place a mere 85 days after the killings. (Stinney's conviction was vacated in December 2014 based on violations of the Sixth Amendment.)

August 1955: racial murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till in Money, Mississippi
2003 tv movie won Emmy, book "Death of Innocence", docufilm "Untold Story of ..." by KBeauchamp

May 1985: Osage Avenue in West Philadelphia, PA
A Pennsylvania State Police helicopter dropped explosives on a rowhouse in the Cobbs Creek neighborhood of West Philadelphia where members of anarchist black liberation group MOVE were barricaded; police told the fire department not to attempt containment, and 65 homes burned to the ground; six adults and five children died in the incident, and more than 250 people were left homeless. A special investigation commission issued a report in March 1986 that the city government had used excessive force, but nobody has been charged with any crime. The homesites were hastily rebuilt by the city, but were later condemned due to shoddy construction.

The matter is documented in the film "Let The Fire Burn" [Oct 2013] /tt2119463/

August 1997: Haitian immigrant Abner Louima
Abner Louima was arrested outside a nightclub in Brooklyn's East Flatbush and was beaten on the way to the Brooklyn police station, and further brutalized inside the station by Officer Justin Volpe, who raped Louima with a broken broomstick. Louima's injuries required several operations and he spent two months in the hospital. After first pleading innocent and then changing to a guilty plea, Volpe was sentenced in December 1999 to 30 years in prison. N.Y.P.D. officers Schwarz, Bruder, Bellomo, and Wiese were indicted in March 2000 for trying to cover up the assault, but were not convicted. Following several trials for assisting Volpe, Charles Schwarz was sentenced to five years in prison and was released in 2007. Louima's civil suit against the City of New York for police brutality ended in a settlement of $8.75 million in July 2001; after legal fees, Louima collected approximately $5.8 million, which he is using to fund humanitarian efforts in Haiti and Florida.

June 1998: James Boyd, Jr. [1949-98] of Texas
Three white Texans beat 49-year-old Afro-American James Boyd, Jr. and chained him by his ankles to the back of a pickup truck and dragged him around Jasper, Texas until he was dead. The three men were convicted of 'capital murder'; one was executed in 2011; one is on death row; the third was sentenced to life imprisonment with possibility of parole. In reaction to this heinous crime, Texas passed a law against hate crimes in 2001, and Congress passed the federal Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (commonly known as the Matthew Shepard Act), which President Barack Obama signed into law in October 2009.

November 2006: Sean Bell [1983-2006] of New York City
Sean Bell and two friends were leaving a strip club in Queens by car; undercover cop Gescard Isnora thought that they were armed and ordered the car to stop; the car accelerated, hit Isnora, and then hit an unmarked police van. The undercover police team fired 50 shots into the car and killed Bell and severely injured Trent Benefield and Joseph Guzman. Three NYPD officers were indicted and then acquitted on all charges. The civil suit against the City of New York was settled in July 2010 for $7.15 million - $3.25 million to the Bell family, $3 million to Guzman (who still has four bullets in his body), and $900,000 to Trent Benefield (each minus attorney's fees).

December 2011: Anthony Lamar Smith [1983-2011] of St. Louis, Missouri
Two St. Louis Police Dept. officers in a cruiser spotted several Afro-Americans buying drugs from a car; dashcam footage shows the car reversing to ram the police car; the following car chase lasted three minutes; the cops rammed the fleeing car from behind and got out and ordered the occupants to get out; the driver reached for something at his side and Officer Jason Stockley fired five shots thru the driver window, killing 24-year-old Afro-American Anthony Lamar Smith. Former officer Stockley was charged with first degree murder in May 2016 and arrested at his home in Houston, Texas. The trial ended Friday 15 September 2017 with an acquittal. Daytime protests of the verdict in St. Louis were peaceful, but small groups of people turned violent over the next three nights and police arrested at least 80 people.

February 2012: Trayvon Martin [1995-2012] of Florida
17-year-old Afro-American teenager known as 'Slimm' on the internet; stood 5-foot 11-inches tall and weighed 158 pounds (72 kg) at death. While visiting at his father's girlfriend's home in Sanford, he walked to a nearby convenience store and bought candy and juice; on the way back he was spotted by armed neighborhood Watch volunteer George Zimmerman, who was ordered not to get out of his patrol car. Zimmerman did anyway, following Trayvon; there are no witnesses to the confrontation, but Trayvon was shot point-blank in the chest and Zimmerman received injuries to his face and scalp. Zimmerman claimed self defense and was not charged until April 11; the trial began on June 10 and a jury acquitted George Zimmerman on July 13. (Since that time, Zimmerman has had many brushes with the law, mostly for off-duty inappropriate violence, but all such charges have been dropped.)

March 2012: Rekia Boyd [19??-2012] of Chicago, Illinois
22-year-old African-American woman slain at random by a drunken off-duty cop. Chicago police detective Dante Servin fired multiple shots from an unregistered 9mm semi-automatic firearm from his car, over his shoulder, into a crowd of people; witnesses say that he appeared to be drunk. One bullet hit Boyd's friend, Antonio Cross, in the hand; another hit Boyd in the back of the head and killed her. Servin was charged with involuntary manslaughter in November 2013, but was cleared of all charges by a rare directed verdict in April 2015. The judge's reasoning was that since the shooting was intentional, Servin could not be charged with recklessness; it has been suggested that the state prosecutor deliberately undercharged Servin, knowing that the charges would be dropped.

July 2012: U.S. Army Sgt. James Brown [1986?-2012] in Texas
An active-duty Afro-American Fort Bliss soldier self-reported for a two-day D.W.I. sentence at the El Paso County Jail in July 2012 and died while in custody.
KFOX-14 anchor Erika Castillo reported at the time on the mysterious circumstances surrounding the death of Sgt. James Brown while he was in jail; Brown had no criminal record, and toxicology tests showed no illegal drugs in his body; the autopsy report cited natural causes by 'sickle cell crisis'. {Medical studies show that sickle cell disease lies dormant until it is triggered by dehydration and stress.} It took the TV station three years to obtain the video of the riot gear response to Brown's jail cell by El Paso County Sheriff deputies; in the video, Sgt. Brown tells the jail personnel at least 20 times that he cannot breathe; he is also shown having pepper spray [sic!!] washed off of his face in a sink; Brown asks for water and is given small paper cups full, twice; at the end of the video, his naked dead body is placed on a gurney for transport to the hospital; at no point are medical personnel brought in.
TV news segment from May 2015 [5:07] on YouTube

July 2012: Alesia Thomas [1977?-2012] of Los Angeles
35-year-old Afro-American woman Alesia Thomas died in the back of an L.A.P.D. police car; during her arrest by a female officer and others, she was slammed to the ground, handcuffed behind her back, kicked in the upper thigh and groin, hog-tied, and stuffed into the back seat of a patrol car, where she died. One of the L.A.P.D. officers involved went on trial in May 2015 and was convicted of assault and sentenced to jail time. The L.A. City Council agreed in October 2015 to settle a lawsuit on behalf of Thomas's children for $2.5 million (minus attorney's fees).

November 2012: Jordan Davis [1995-2012] of Florida
17-year-old African-American high school student; murdered while sitting in a friend's car at a gas station in Jacksonville, Florida because he refused to turn the car's radio volume down. The boy was killed by a civilian visiting town for a wedding; 45-year-old Michael David Dunn was tried by jury in February 2015 and convicted on four counts; the jury could not agree on the main count of first-degree murder, so the judge declared a mistrial on that count. Dunn was retried in September 2014 and that jury found him guilty; he was sentenced to life in prison without parole, plus 90 years in prison for the lesser counts (the case is pending appeal).

January 2013: Kendrick 'K.J.' Johnson [19??-2013] of Valdosta, Georgia
The killing of Afro-American high school student Kendrick Johnson may or may not have been racially motivated, but racism is a valid assumption. Johnson's body was found in a rolled up wrestling mat in the gymnasium of Lowndes High School the day after he was killed; the preliminary investigation and state autopsy concluded that the death was accidental. Johnson's family had a private pathologist conduct another autopsy which concluded that Johnson died from blunt force trauma. The U.S. District Attorney announced in October 2013 that they were opening a formal review into the Johnson's death, with the participation of the F.B.I. The Johnson family filed legal action demanding a speedy coroner's inquiry, which has been delayed pending the results of the D.A.'s formal review.

Strange facts that have since come to light include: (1) that the coroner did not forward Johnson's internal organs to the funeral home with the body; (2) the second autopsy received a body stuffed with newspapers by the funeral home (an uncommon but legal practice); (3) when C.N.N. filed in court to see surveillance tapes, they received 2,900 hours of video, which included two cameras missing an hour of footage and two other cameras missing two hours of footage.

Johnson's family filed a wrongful death suit in July 2014 against the school district, alleging negligence; the suit asserts that Johnson was attacked several times and harassed by an unnamed white student. Ebony Magazine published information alleging that two brothers were suspects in the case (the articles used pseudonyms, but identified them as sons of a local F.B.I. agent). An email to the sheriff surfaced that named one of the brothers as having killed Kendrick Johnson because Johnson had sex with the girlfriend of one of the brothers. The Bell family filed a $5M defamation lawsuit against the magazine.

Johnson's family filed a $100M civil lawsuit in January 2015 against 38 defendents ranging from unnamed individuals to state and federal officials alleging a conspiracy to cover up the homicide of Kendrick Johnson; the lawsuit could not be filed in Lowndes County Superior Court because the judges all recused themselves.

November 2013: Renisha McBride [1996-2013] of Detroit, Michigan
19-year-old African-American woman Renisha McBride crashed her car in the early hours of the day in Dearborn Heights; she may have been drunk or she may have been injured in the crash, observers said that she was disoriented. She wandered the residential neighborhood, several residents made 911 reports, and she reached a house a mile away from the disabled car. At 4:42 am, she was pounding on the front windows and door of a house occupied by 54-year-old white homeowner Theodore Paul Wafer, waking him; he grabbed a shotgun for protection and went to the door. He says he opened the door and the shotgun went off by accident, hitting Renisha in the face. The jury did not believe his story and found him guilty on three counts in August 2014; he was sentenced in September to 17 to 32 years in prison.

July 2014: Eric Garner [1970-2014] of Staten Island, New York City
Eric Garner was a 43-year-old Afro-American man who stood 6 foot 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed 350 pounds (160 kg) and had been arrested over 30 times for petty crimes, most often for selling untaxed cigarettes. He was placed in an illegal choke-hold by N.Y.P.D. patrol officer Daniel Pantaleo and choked to death: he is famously quoted as saying "I can't breathe" eleven times {on video} but the cops would not let up. The medical examiner concluded that Garner died of the chokehold and labeled it homicide; Richmond County chose not to prosecute the cops; the City of New York settled with the family for $5.9M in July 2015.

I Can't Breathe book by Matt Taibbi  "I Can't Breathe: A Killing On Bay Street" [2017]
by journalist Matt Taibbi

Kindle Edition from Spiegel & Grau/Random House [10/2017] for $14.99
Spiegel & Grau 9½x6½ hardcover [10/2017] for $15.65

August 2014: Jeremey Lake [1995-2014] of Tulsa, Oklahoma
19-year-old Afro-American Jeremey Lake was killed point-blank by an off-duty white police officer for dating the cop's then-18-year-old daughter, Lisa. Ex-Tulsa police officer Shannon Kepler survived three trials for first-degree murder because the juries could not agree; he was finally convicted of the lesser charge of first-degree manslaughter in a fourth trial in October 2017; the jury recommended a sentence of 15 years in prison.

August 2014: Michael Brown, Jr. [1996-2014] of Ferguson, Missouri
18-year-old 'gentle giant' Afro-American Michael Brown, Jr. was getting ready to go to college; he stood 6 feet 4 inches tall and weighed 292 pounds (132 kg). Brown was walking with a friend down the middle of a residential street on a quiet Saturday midday in Ferguson; the teenagers were confronted by white police officer Darren Wilson; Wilson told them to get out of the street and when they did not he backed up his patrol car and blocked them; following events are unclear, but Wilson fired at Micheal Brown twelve times (spent casings) and hit him six times; Brown's body lay in the street for four hours. The entrenched interests of government officials in the City of Ferguson, in St. Louis County, and in the State of Missouri bent over backwards to exonerate the police officer. The Ferguson district attorney intentially contaminated the testimony given to the grand jury, which heard evidence from August 20 and announced on November 24 that officer Wilson would not be indicted. Riots ensued. On 4 March 2015, the U. S. Department of Justice stated that they had not found enough evidence to charge officer Wilson with violation of Michael Brown's civil rights, to refute his claim of self-defense. (The Ferguson Incident has become the central event in revealing the current general police attitude of aggression and disrespect in Missouri - and nationwide - toward the citizens that they pretend to 'serve and protect'; expect news reports of new racist killings to now refer to Ferguson in the mode of 'here we go again'.)

Investigation of The Ferguson Police Department report by U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division  "The Ferguson Report: Department of Justice Investigation of The Ferguson Police Department" [2015] by U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, Introduction by Theodore M. Shaw, renowned legal scholar and former president of the N.A.A.C.P. Legal Defense & Educational Fund
The New Press pb [6/2015] for $8.46

August 2014: Dillon Taylor [1994?-2014] of Salt Lake City, Utah
On 11 August 2014, 20-year-old Dillon Taylor walked out of a local convenience store listening to music on his headphones. The full audio- and video-tape of his murder has since been released. A police cruiser pulls up and Officer Bron Cruz gets out of the vehicle; he walks past several adults and up behind Taylor, who is unaware of the cop; Officer Cruz yells at Taylor and then shoots him in the back. {The headphones are clearly visible in Taylor's ears, and the headphone cord in his shirt pocket.} Cruz tells the dying boy to 'give me your hands' while spectators begin screaming and crying; Cruz then handcuffs Taylor behind his back. The cop turns Taylor over and tries to get him to speak, but the boy is near death and his white t-shirt is covered with blood. Cruz then begins rummaging thru the boy's pockets – at no time does Officer Cruz call for medical assistance or attempt first aid. (The tape runs five minutes total.)

On October 1st, Salt Lake City district attorney Sim Gill ruled that the killing of unarmed 20-year-old Taylor was justified, though he stated that
"Taylor's shooting was justified not because he posed an actual threat, but because (Officer) Cruz reasonably perceived a threat."
But now that the full video has been released, it's disturbingly clear that nothing about this police shooting was justified. Nothing at all.

October 2014: Laquan McDonald [1997?-2014] of Chicago, Illinois
17-year-old Afro-American Laquan McDonald was vandalizing cars in Archer Heights with a knife; police arrived; Laquan slashed a tire on the patrol car and 'damaged the windshield'; more police arrived and surrounded the boy; supposedly 'waiting for a Taser to arrive', the cops ordered him to drop the knife. The boy began walking away and the police fired 16 times and killed him. The incident was filmed on a patrol car dash camera, but Chicago has done everything in its power to keep that video private, including paying the family $5 million so that the public never sees the evidence. The F.B.I. is now investigating the case.

November 2014: Tamir Rice [?-2014] of Cleveland, Ohio
12-year-old Tamir Rice was killed by a rookie patrol officer for playing with a toy gun.

November 2014: Timothy Russell [?-2014] and Malissa Williams [?-2014] of Cleveland, Ohio
Brelo and 12 other officers fired 137 shots at a car with Timothy Russell and Malissa Williams inside it on Nov. 29, 2012. The shooting occurred at the end of a 22-mile chase involving more than 100 Cleveland police officers and 60 cruisers after Russell's Chevy Malibu backfired while speeding past police headquarters. During the chase, an officer reported that he thought he'd seen Williams with a gun. At the end, police mistook police gunfire for shots from Russell's car. Brelo fired 49 of those shots that night, but it was the final 15 fired into the windshield while he stood on the hood of Russell's car that led to his indictment and a four-week trial. He faced up to 22 years in prison if convicted on both counts Angry but mostly orderly protests followed Saturday 5/23 2015 verdict.

January 2015: Floyd Dent [b. 1958?] of Detroit, Michigan
57-year-old Afro-American Floyd Dent survived multiple injuries including broken face bones, broken ribs, and brain damage. Two police patrol units pulled over Dent's car for running a stop sign; the cops proceeded to beat and Taser the man. A silent dash-cam video showing the actions of the three white cops surfaced in March; Inkster, Michigan police officer Bill 'Robocop' Melendez was taken off patrol duty until he was fired on April 13th; Melendez was charged a week later with three felonies in the brutal beating, including planting drug evidence in Dent's car. There are twelve civil suits pending against Melendez for use of excessive force, i.e. police brutality. ADDED 11/2015: The city of Inkster agreed to pay Dent $1.4M for his injuries; former police officer Melendez was convicted by a jury of charges of assault and of misconduct.

February 2015: Natasha McKenna [1978?-2015] of Virginia
Afro-American single mother, described as 'petite'; diagnosed with schizoprenia at age 12. Called 911 and asked for help; cops arrived
and handcuffed her behind her back and shackled her and placed a mask over her face. Placed in a holding cell at Fairfax County Jail;
while still immobilized, the woman was Tazered FOUR TIMES and died.

April 2015: series of riots in response to the death of Freddie Gray while in police custody
Six police officers were indicted on May First; main officer cleared of all charges in Freddie Gray case in May 2016
In September 2017, the Justice Department announced that it would not bring federal civil rights charges against the six Baltimore police officers involved in killing Freddie Gray – no officers have been convicted over Gray's murder.

April 2015: Walter Scott [1965-2015] of South Carolina
Afro-American Walter Scott was pulled over around 9:30am on April 4th by police in North Charleston, South Carolina for having a broken tail light. Apparently Scott fled on foot; white police officer Michael Slager pursued and 'scuffled' with Scott; Slager shot Scott with a Taser, Scott fled again, and Slager fired eight rounds from his handgun at Scott; three bullets struck Scott in the back, one struck him in the upper buttocks, and the fifth clipped his ear. Slager told the dispatcher that the victim had taken the officer's Taser; written reports stated that Slager feared for his life. However, a cellphone video soon surfaced that showed Slager approaching the murdered boy from 15-20 feet away and then dropping his Taser next to the body; that video went viral. Police reports have not yet been released, but Slager was indicted by a grand jury on June 8 for murder. (Another officer is under investigation for participating in and helping Slager cover up the crime.) The jury of a first trial in 2016 deadlocked on state murder charges.
SENTENCING 12/2017: Earlier this year, Slager pleaded guilty to a single count of violating Scott's civil rights in a deal with federal prosecutors. But U.S. District Judge David Norton sentenced Slager to 20 years after determining that the shooting constituted second-degree murder, and Scott's false testimony amounted to obstruction of justice.

May 2015: Mitchell Brad Martinez [?-2015] of Florida
37-year-old half-Hispanic Mitchell Brad Martinez went to court at 9am on Friday May 29th; his bond was revoked {details unclear}; wearing civilian clothing, he was transported in an Indian River County Sheriff's Department van from court to the jail, and eight minutes later was pulled out of the van in a comatose state; he was taken to the hospital and the I.C.U. around Noon; he died four days later without recovering from his coma; autopsy is pending.

May 2015: Teenagers in McKinney, Texas
A woman resident reserved the local pool in McKinney, Texas for a pool party on Friday evening of May 29; about 130 people showed up, mostly teenagers who were behaving themselves just fine. A white neighbor started yelling racial slurs and slapping the host teenager, then called the cops. Officer Eric Casebolt arrived and yelled at the kids, pointed his handgun at the crowd, then grabbed one bikini-clad Afro-American girl and forced her face down on the grass. The incident was captured on several cellphone videos; Casebolt was placed on administrative leave. Residents held a protest march on Monday evening.

June 2015: Mother Emanuel Nine
at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church [est. ] in Charleston, South Carolina

watch June 26 eulogy for Rev. Clementa Pinckney delivered by Pres. Barack Obama [40:58] online at YouTube

April 2016: Demarcus Semer
Fort Pierce, Florida police have asked the St. Lucie County Sheriff's Dept. to take over the investigation of an officer-involved shooting on Saturday April 23rd. Afro-American resident Demarcus Semer, 21 years old, was shot and killed by two police officers. While police at first said that neither officer and neither of their patrol cars had cameras, one of the patrols cars did indeed have a dash camera. (A week after the incident, Ft. Pierce police have been unable to count the number of cameras installed in their patrol cars.) After a police car chase and traffic stop, Semer was shot and killed when he allegedly hit a Ft. Pierce Police officer and 'dragged' another officer. Eyewitnesses have alleged that Semer was shot in the back as he was running away, with his hands up in the air at one point.

July 2016: Charles Kinsey
A Miami police officer shot an unarmed Afro-American man helping to retrieve an autistic man who escaped from a mental health center on Wednesday 20 July. Video taken before the officer fired his weapon shows Kinsey on his back with his hands in the air telling police that he didn’t have a weapon and asking them not to shoot. Kinsey said that when he asked the officer why he fired his weapon, the cop responded, "I don’t know".

14 September 2016: Tyre King
Police in Columbus, Ohio fatally shot Tyre {pron. Tyree} King, a 13-year-old with a BB gun. Police say they were responding to a reported armed robbery when they encountered the boy.

18 March 2018: Stephen Clark
fatally shot by Sacremento Police in his own back yard; he was carrying a cell phone which police mistook for a 'tool bar'.


Attorney Benjamin Lloyd Crump of Tallahassee, Florida is making a name for himself by representing victims of many of the crimes listed above;
clients of law firm Parks & Crump, LLC include the families of Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, Tamir Rice, and Alesia Thomas.

{other clients not yet coded here} include the family of Martin Lee Anderson, an Afro-American teenager who died after a beating in 2006 by guards in a Florida youth detention center; the family of Genie McMeans Jr., an Afro-American driver who died after being shot by a white State Trooper; the family of Ronald Weekley Jr., a 20-year-old Afro-American skateboarder beaten by police in Venice, California; the family of Tamir Rice, an Afro-American youth who was killed by police in Cleveland, Ohio while holding an air gun (a replica of a real gun); and the family of Antonio Zambrano-Montes, an illegal immigrant from Mexico who was killed by three policemen in Pasco, Washington for throwing rocks.

B o o k s
browse books on Race Relations / Discrimination & Racism at Amazon

http://www.amazon.com/100-Years-Lynchings-Ralph-Ginzburg/dp/0933121180/ 1996
http://www.amazon.com/African-Americans-Criminal-Justice-Encyclopedia/dp/0313357161/ 2014
http://www.amazon.com/Fire-Canebrake-Last-Lynching-America/dp/0684868172/ 2004
http://www.amazon.com/Forever-Free-Story-Emancipation-Reconstruction/dp/0375702741/ 2006
http://www.amazon.com/Forgotten-Dead-Violence-Mexicans-1848-1928/dp/0195320352/ 2013
http://www.amazon.com/Growing-Up-Jim-Crow-Southern/dp/0807856843/ 2006
http://www.amazon.com/Thirteen-Loops-Violence-Lynching-America/dp/0817317538/ 2011
http://www.amazon.com/Without-Sanctuary-Lynching-Photography-America/dp/0944092691/ 2000

History of Negro Revolt book by C.L.R. James  "A History of Negro Revolt" [1938]
by C.L.R. James, New Introduction by Tony Martin

divided into six chapters: 'San Domingo', 'The Old United States', 'The Civil War', 'Revolts in Africa', 'Marcus Garvey', and 'Negro Movements in Recent Years' (as-of 1938)"
R.A.S. Times Publns 8¼x5½ pb [11/1991] for $11.30
R.A.S. Times Publns 8¼x5½ pb [11/1991] out of prodn/used
Race Matters book by Cornel West  "Race Matters" [1993] by Cornel West
Kindle Edition from Beacon Press [2001 edition] for $11.49
Vintage 8¼x5 pb [3/94] for $13.15
Beacon Press hardcover [4/2001] for $16.65
Audio Partners UNABR audio [6/94] out of prodn/used
Let's Talk About Race children's book by Julius Lester & Karen Barbour  "Let's Talk About Race" [grades K-5; 2005]
by Julius Lester, Illustrated by Karen Barbour

Amistad 11x8½ pb [12/2008] for $6.99
Amistad pb [1/2005] out of prodn/used
Amistad library hardcover [1/2005] for $15.99
Lynchings in Mississippi book by Julius E. Thompson  "Lynchings In Mississippi: A History, 1865-1965" [2006]
by Julius E. Thompson

During the 100 years after the Civil War, almost one in every ten lynchings
in the United States took place in Mississippi, to a count of over 500.

McFarland & Co. 9¾x7 pb [3/2011] for $36.10
McFarland & Co. 10x7¼ hardcover [11/2006] out of print/used
Wages of Whiteness book by David R. Roediger  "The Wages of Whiteness: Race and The Making of The American Working Class"
[2007] by David R. Roediger, Introduction by Kathleen Cleaver

Verso Books 8¼x5½ pb [7/2007] for $19.96
Verso Books 8x6 hardcover [7/2007] for $54.53
Lynchings in Missouri book by Harriet C. Frazier  "Lynchings In Missouri, 1803-1981" [2009] by Harriet C. Frazier
At least 227 mob lynchings took place on Missouri soil between 1803 and (yes) 1981.
McFarland & Co. 9¾x7 pb [8/2009] for $36.10
The New Jim Crow book by Michelle Alexander  "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration In The Age of Colorblindness" [2010]
by Michelle Alexander, Introduction by Cornel West

Kindle Edition from The New Press [1/2012] for $9.99
The New Press 9¼x6¼ pb [1/2012] for $12.78
The New Press 9¼x6½ hardcover [1/2010] for $16.21
All Hell Broke Loose / American Race Riots book by Ann V. Collins  "All Hell Broke Loose: American Race Riots From The Progressive Era Through World War II" [2012] by Ann V. Collins
Kindle Edition from Praeger [5/2012] for $50.35 {sic}
Praeger 9¼x6 hardcover [5/2012] for $53.00
Capitalism, A Ghost Story book by Arundhati Roy  "Capitalism: A Ghost Story" [2014] by Arundhati Roy
Ms. Roy's book examines the dark side of democracy and economics in contemporary India, and shows how the demands of globalized capitalism have subjugated billions of people to the worst forms of racism and exploitation.
Kindle Edition from Haymarket Books [5/2014] for $9.99
Haymarket Books 7½x5¼ pb [5/2014] for $12.16
Lynchings in Kansas book by Harriet C. Frazier  "Lynchings In Kansas, 1850s-1932" [2015] by Harriet C. Frazier
A replacement for the 1933 book by Genevieve Yost; new research gives details
for 123 entries (19 removed, 58 added).

Kindle Edition from McFarland [1/2015] for $29.99 {sic}
McFarland & Co. 10x7 pb [1/2015] for $45.00
White Robes, Silver Screens / Movies & the Ku Klux Klan book by Tom Rice  "White Robes, Silver Screens: Movies and The Making of The Ku Klux Klan"
[2015] by Tom Rice

Kindle Edition from Indiana Univ Press [11/2015] for $27.99 {sic}
Indiana Univ Press pb [12/2015] for $23.80
Indiana Univ Press hardcover [12/2015] for $80.00
Second Coming of the KKK book by Linda Gordon  "The Second Coming of The K.K.K.: The Ku Klux Klan of The 1920s  10/2017
and The American Political Tradition" [2017] by Linda Gordon

Kindle Edition from Liveright [10/2017] for $14.16
Liveright 9½x6½ hardcover [10/2017] for $23.85
No Longer Talking About Race book by Reni Eddo-Lodge  "Why I’m No Longer Talking (To White People) About Race" [2017]  10/2017
by Reni Eddo-Lodge

Kindle Edition from Bloomsbury Publng [6/2017] for $7.99
Bloomsbury Circus 8½x5¼ pb [11/2017] import/used
Bloomsbury Circus 8¾x5½ hardcover [11/2017] for $17.60

Other Media

Native Land pro-labor documentary narrated by Paul Robeson  "Native Land" b&w documentary film [Frontier Films 1942]
"a scathing leftist critique of violence, racism, and working class oppression" • Dramatized pro-labor documentary, based on the La Follette Committee's 1936-41 investigation into repression of labor organizing • Co-written & co-produced & co-directed by later-expatriot Paul Strand & [blacklistee] Leo Hurwitz, co-written by Ben Maddow {as David Wolff}; narrated by [blacklistee] Paul Robeson [1898-1976]; actors include [blacklistee] Howard Da Silva, Mary George, Fred Johnson, John Marley & Robert Strauss
at last on DVD! Flicker Alley/Blackhawk b&w DVD [10/2016] for $19.98
Kino Video b&w VHS [3/94] out of prodn/scarce
full credits from IMDb • movie entry at Wikipedia
watch full movie [5/2017 upload; 1:28:30] online at YouTube

Prejudice in America DVD compilation  "Prejudice In America: Compelling Films From Our Racist Past, 1957-60" [2014]
contains 5 short films: 28-minute "All The Way Home" [Dynamic Films 1957]: A long time resident puts a For Sale sign up in front of his home in a quiet, tree-lined, all-white neighborhood; when a black family stops by to look at the house, it creates a buzz which unleashes a wave of fear, panic, and racism that threaten to tear the community apart {IMDb credits}; "Palmour Street" [1957]: heartfelt true-image depiction of life in a low-income black community in Georgia {not listed at IMDb}; 12-minute "What About Prejudice" [McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1959]: the first black student enrolls in an all-white high school {IMDb credits}; 28-minute "Integration Report 1" [1960]: film clips from the front lines of the battle for integration; highlights include a speech by Rev. Martin Luther King {IMDb credits}; "The New Girl In The Office" [U.S. Govt. 1960]: when an employer announces plans to hire an Afro-American secretary, some of his key employees threaten to quit{not listed at IMDb} watch movie [30:41] online at YouTube
Alpha Video b&w DVD [7/2014] for $5.98

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